软硬件环境

  • ubuntu 18.04 64bit
  • anaconda with python 3.6
  • pycrc

CRC简介

CRCCyclic Redundancy Check的缩写,中文叫循环冗余校验,维基百科的定义是这样的

是一种根据网上数据包或计算机文件等数据产生简短固定位数校验码的一种散列函数,主要用来检测或校验数据传输或者保存后可能出现的错误。生成的数字在传输或者存储之前计算出来并且附加到数据后面,然后接收方进行检验确定数据是否发生变化。一般来说,循环冗余校验的值都是32位的整数。由于本函数易于用二进制的计算机硬件使用、容易进行数学分析并且尤其善于检测传输通道干扰引起的错误,因此获得广泛应用。此方法是由W. Wesley Peterson于1961年发表。

总结一下,CRC就是确保数据经过传输或保存后的正确性的一种方法。

python中使用CRC

这里介绍两种情况,其一,不关心具体的CRC算法实现,那我们就用现成的第三方库pycrc;另一种就是基于私有的CRC算法,你可以根据自己的需要实现自定义。

pycrc

安装pycrc

pip install pycrc

实例代码

xugaoxiang@ubuntu:~$ ipython3
Python 3.6.6 |Anaconda custom (64-bit)| (default, Oct  9 2018, 12:34:16) 
Type 'copyright', 'credits' or 'license' for more information
IPython 7.1.1 -- An enhanced Interactive Python. Type '?' for help.

In [1]:                                                                                                            

In [1]: from PyCRC.CRC16 import CRC16 
   ...: from PyCRC.CRC16DNP import CRC16DNP 
   ...: from PyCRC.CRC16Kermit import CRC16Kermit 
   ...: from PyCRC.CRC16SICK import CRC16SICK 
   ...: from PyCRC.CRC32 import CRC32 
   ...: from PyCRC.CRCCCITT import CRCCCITT                                                                        

In [2]: input = '12345'                                                                                            

In [3]: CRC16().calculate(input)                                                                                   
Out[3]: 42069

In [4]: CRC32().calculate(input)                                                                                   
Out[4]: 3421846044

In [5]: CRCCCITT().calculate(input)                                                                                
Out[5]: 21612

In [6]: CRC16DNP().calculate(input)                                                                                
Out[6]: 7281

In [7]: CRC16Kermit().calculate(input)                                                                             
Out[7]: 14196

In [8]: CRC16SICK().calculate(input)                                                                               
Out[8]: 5264
调用私有的CRC算法

在某些场景下(如早些年的嵌入式领域),会自己去实现一套私有的CRC算法,一般是基于C语言编写,这样的话,如果需要在python中实现调用,就需要自己去编译成动态库,然后在python中使用。如下是一段C代码,它的核心其实是crc_table,在嵌入式设备中,一般都是将crc_table预先计算好,crc_table不同,最后的结果也不一样。

/*crc*/
/* crc32.c -- compute the CRC-32 of a data stream
 * Copyright (C) 1995-1998 Mark Adler
 * For conditions of distribution and use, see copyright notice in zlib.h 
 */


static const unsigned int crc_table[256] = {
  0x00000000L, 0x77073096L, 0xee0e612cL, 0x990951baL, 0x076dc419L,
  0x706af48fL, 0xe963a535L, 0x9e6495a3L, 0x0edb8832L, 0x79dcb8a4L,
  0xe0d5e91eL, 0x97d2d988L, 0x09b64c2bL, 0x7eb17cbdL, 0xe7b82d07L,
  0x90bf1d91L, 0x1db71064L, 0x6ab020f2L, 0xf3b97148L, 0x84be41deL,
  0x1adad47dL, 0x6ddde4ebL, 0xf4d4b551L, 0x83d385c7L, 0x136c9856L,
  0x646ba8c0L, 0xfd62f97aL, 0x8a65c9ecL, 0x14015c4fL, 0x63066cd9L,
  0xfa0f3d63L, 0x8d080df5L, 0x3b6e20c8L, 0x4c69105eL, 0xd56041e4L,
  0xa2677172L, 0x3c03e4d1L, 0x4b04d447L, 0xd20d85fdL, 0xa50ab56bL,
  0x35b5a8faL, 0x42b2986cL, 0xdbbbc9d6L, 0xacbcf940L, 0x32d86ce3L,
  0x45df5c75L, 0xdcd60dcfL, 0xabd13d59L, 0x26d930acL, 0x51de003aL,
  0xc8d75180L, 0xbfd06116L, 0x21b4f4b5L, 0x56b3c423L, 0xcfba9599L,
  0xb8bda50fL, 0x2802b89eL, 0x5f058808L, 0xc60cd9b2L, 0xb10be924L,
  0x2f6f7c87L, 0x58684c11L, 0xc1611dabL, 0xb6662d3dL, 0x76dc4190L,
  0x01db7106L, 0x98d220bcL, 0xefd5102aL, 0x71b18589L, 0x06b6b51fL,
  0x9fbfe4a5L, 0xe8b8d433L, 0x7807c9a2L, 0x0f00f934L, 0x9609a88eL,
  0xe10e9818L, 0x7f6a0dbbL, 0x086d3d2dL, 0x91646c97L, 0xe6635c01L,
  0x6b6b51f4L, 0x1c6c6162L, 0x856530d8L, 0xf262004eL, 0x6c0695edL,
  0x1b01a57bL, 0x8208f4c1L, 0xf50fc457L, 0x65b0d9c6L, 0x12b7e950L,
  0x8bbeb8eaL, 0xfcb9887cL, 0x62dd1ddfL, 0x15da2d49L, 0x8cd37cf3L,
  0xfbd44c65L, 0x4db26158L, 0x3ab551ceL, 0xa3bc0074L, 0xd4bb30e2L,
  0x4adfa541L, 0x3dd895d7L, 0xa4d1c46dL, 0xd3d6f4fbL, 0x4369e96aL,
  0x346ed9fcL, 0xad678846L, 0xda60b8d0L, 0x44042d73L, 0x33031de5L,
  0xaa0a4c5fL, 0xdd0d7cc9L, 0x5005713cL, 0x270241aaL, 0xbe0b1010L,
  0xc90c2086L, 0x5768b525L, 0x206f85b3L, 0xb966d409L, 0xce61e49fL,
  0x5edef90eL, 0x29d9c998L, 0xb0d09822L, 0xc7d7a8b4L, 0x59b33d17L,
  0x2eb40d81L, 0xb7bd5c3bL, 0xc0ba6cadL, 0xedb88320L, 0x9abfb3b6L,
  0x03b6e20cL, 0x74b1d29aL, 0xead54739L, 0x9dd277afL, 0x04db2615L,
  0x73dc1683L, 0xe3630b12L, 0x94643b84L, 0x0d6d6a3eL, 0x7a6a5aa8L,
  0xe40ecf0bL, 0x9309ff9dL, 0x0a00ae27L, 0x7d079eb1L, 0xf00f9344L,
  0x8708a3d2L, 0x1e01f268L, 0x6906c2feL, 0xf762575dL, 0x806567cbL,
  0x196c3671L, 0x6e6b06e7L, 0xfed41b76L, 0x89d32be0L, 0x10da7a5aL,
  0x67dd4accL, 0xf9b9df6fL, 0x8ebeeff9L, 0x17b7be43L, 0x60b08ed5L,
  0xd6d6a3e8L, 0xa1d1937eL, 0x38d8c2c4L, 0x4fdff252L, 0xd1bb67f1L,
  0xa6bc5767L, 0x3fb506ddL, 0x48b2364bL, 0xd80d2bdaL, 0xaf0a1b4cL,
  0x36034af6L, 0x41047a60L, 0xdf60efc3L, 0xa867df55L, 0x316e8eefL,
  0x4669be79L, 0xcb61b38cL, 0xbc66831aL, 0x256fd2a0L, 0x5268e236L,
  0xcc0c7795L, 0xbb0b4703L, 0x220216b9L, 0x5505262fL, 0xc5ba3bbeL,
  0xb2bd0b28L, 0x2bb45a92L, 0x5cb36a04L, 0xc2d7ffa7L, 0xb5d0cf31L,
  0x2cd99e8bL, 0x5bdeae1dL, 0x9b64c2b0L, 0xec63f226L, 0x756aa39cL,
  0x026d930aL, 0x9c0906a9L, 0xeb0e363fL, 0x72076785L, 0x05005713L,
  0x95bf4a82L, 0xe2b87a14L, 0x7bb12baeL, 0x0cb61b38L, 0x92d28e9bL,
  0xe5d5be0dL, 0x7cdcefb7L, 0x0bdbdf21L, 0x86d3d2d4L, 0xf1d4e242L,
  0x68ddb3f8L, 0x1fda836eL, 0x81be16cdL, 0xf6b9265bL, 0x6fb077e1L,
  0x18b74777L, 0x88085ae6L, 0xff0f6a70L, 0x66063bcaL, 0x11010b5cL,
  0x8f659effL, 0xf862ae69L, 0x616bffd3L, 0x166ccf45L, 0xa00ae278L,
  0xd70dd2eeL, 0x4e048354L, 0x3903b3c2L, 0xa7672661L, 0xd06016f7L,
  0x4969474dL, 0x3e6e77dbL, 0xaed16a4aL, 0xd9d65adcL, 0x40df0b66L,
  0x37d83bf0L, 0xa9bcae53L, 0xdebb9ec5L, 0x47b2cf7fL, 0x30b5ffe9L,
  0xbdbdf21cL, 0xcabac28aL, 0x53b39330L, 0x24b4a3a6L, 0xbad03605L,
  0xcdd70693L, 0x54de5729L, 0x23d967bfL, 0xb3667a2eL, 0xc4614ab8L,
  0x5d681b02L, 0x2a6f2b94L, 0xb40bbe37L, 0xc30c8ea1L, 0x5a05df1bL,
  0x2d02ef8dL
};

#define DO1(buf) crc = crc_table[((int)crc ^ (*buf++)) & 0xff] ^ (crc >> 8);
#define DO2(buf)  DO1(buf); DO1(buf);
#define DO4(buf)  DO2(buf); DO2(buf);
#define DO8(buf)  DO4(buf); DO4(buf);
unsigned int mtd_crc32(unsigned int crc, const char *buf, int len)
{
        crc = crc ^ 0xffffffffL;
    while (len >= 8)
    {
      DO8(buf);
      len -= 8;
    }
    if (len) do {
      DO1(buf);
    } while (--len);
    return crc ^ 0xffffffffL;
}

第一步将C代码编译成动态链接库

gcc -fPIC -shared -o libcrc.so crc.c

接着编写python模块crc.py, 这里使用了platform来区分系统是32位的还是64位的,方便跨平台

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-


"""
@author: djstava
@license: MIT Licence 
@contact: djstava@gmail.com
@site: https://www.xugaoxiang.com
@software: PyCharm
@file: crc.py
@time: 11/11/18 4:48 PM
"""

import platform
from ctypes import *


class Crc(object):
    def __init__(self):
        pass

    @classmethod
    def calcStrCRC(self,buffer,size):
        '''
        调用外部so,计算crc值
        :param buffer: bytes-like类型
        :param size:
        :return:
        '''

        if platform.architecture()[0] == '64bit':
            handle = cdll.LoadLibrary('libcrc_64.so')
        else:
            handle = cdll.LoadLibrary('libcrc.so')

        func = handle.mtd_crc32

        func.argtypes = (c_uint,c_void_p,c_int)
        func.restype = c_uint

        crc = func(0,buffer,size)
        return crc

参考资料

  1. https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%BE%AA%E7%92%B0%E5%86%97%E9%A4%98%E6%A0%A1%E9%A9%97
  2. https://pypi.org/project/PyCRC/


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